Introduction to HIV

  1. Barré-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science 1983; 220(4599):868-71.
  2. NIH publication: The evidence that HIV causes AIDS
  3. AIDS Denialism: The “evidence” against HIV as the cause of AIDS
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  5. McMichael AJ, Borrow P, Tomaras GD, Goonetilleke N, Haynes BF. The immune response during acute HIV-1 infection: clues for vaccine development. Nat Rev Immunol 2010; 10:11-23. Review
  6. Kirchhoff F. Immune evasion and counteraction of restriction factors by HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses. Cell Host Microbe. 2010; 8(1):55-67. Review
  7. Walker BD and Burton DR. Toward an AIDS vaccine. Science. 2008; 320(5877):760-4. Review.
  8. Richman DD, Margolis DM, Delaney M, Greene WC, Hazuda D, Pomerantz RJ. The challenge of finding a cure for HIV infection. Science. 2009; 323(5919):1304-7. Review.
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Host and viral factors influencing disease progression

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  2. Dean M, Carrington M, Winkler C et al. Genetic restriction of HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS by a deletion allele of the CKR5 structural gene. Science. 1996; 273(5283):1856-62.
  3. Carrington M and O'Brien SJ. The influence of HLA genotype on AIDS. Annu Rev Med 2003; 54:535-551.
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HIV treatment and prevention

  1. Palella FJ, Jr., Delaney KM, Moorman AC et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:853-860.
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  4. Montaner JS, Lima VD, Barrios R et al. Association of highly active antiretroviral therapy coverage, population viral load, and yearly new HIV diagnoses in British Columbia, Canada: a population-based study. Lancet. 2010; Jul 16 [Epub ahead of print]
  5. Rerks-Ngarm S, Pitisuttithum P, Nitayaphan S et al Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX to Prevent HIV-1 Infection in Thailand. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(23):2209-20.
  6. Karim QA, Karim SS, Frohlich JA, et al on behalf of the CAPRISA 004 Trial Group. Effectiveness and Safety of Tenofovir Gel, an Antiretroviral Microbicide, for the Prevention of HIV Infection in Women. Science. 2010 Jul 19 [Epub ahead of print]

Molecular epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and it's origins

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  3. Worobey M, Gemmel M, Teuwen DE et al. Direct evidence of extensive diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960. Nature 2008; 455(7213):661-4.

CD8 T-cell responses to HIV

  1. Walker BD, Chakrabarti S, Moss B et al. HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in seropositive individuals. Nature 1987; 328(6128):345-8.
  2. Borrow P, Lewicki H, Hahn BH, Shaw GM, Oldstone MB. Virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity associated with control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol 1994; 68:6103-6110
  3. Safrit JT, Andrews CA, Zhu T, Ho DD, Koup RA. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones isolated during acute seroconversion: recognition of autologous virus sequences within a conserved immunodominant epitope. J Exp Med 1994; 179(2):463-72.
  4. Schmitz JE, Kuroda MJ, Santra S, et al. Control of viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infection by CD8+ lymphocytes. Science 1999; 283:857-860.

HIV evolution and CTL immune escape

  1. Shankarappa R, Margolick JB, Gange SJ, et al. Consistent viral evolutionary changes associated with the progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol 1999; 73:10489-10502.
  2. Kelleher AD, Long C, Holmes EC, et al. Clustered mutations in HIV-1 gag are consistently required for escape from HLA-B27-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. J Exp Med 2001; 193:375-386
  3. Goulder PJ, Watkins DI. HIV and SIV CTL escape: implications for vaccine design. Nat Rev Immunol 2004; 4:630-640.
  4. Draenert R, Allen TM, Liu Y, et al. Constraints on HIV-1 evolution and immunodominance revealed in monozygotic adult twins infected with the same virus. J Exp Med 2006; 203:529-539.
  5. Leslie AJ, Pfafferott KJ, Chetty P, et al. HIV evolution: CTL escape mutation and reversion after transmission. Nat Med 2004; 10:282-289
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  8. Brumme ZL, John M, Carlson JM, Brumme CJ, Chan D, Brockman MA, et al. HLA-associated immune escape pathways in HIV-1 subtype B Gag, Pol and Nef Proteins. PloS ONE 2009; 4:e6687.
  9. Kawashima Y, Pfafferott K, Frater J, Matthews P, Payne R, Addo M, et al. Adaptation of HIV-1 to human leukocyte antigen class I. Nature 2009; 458:641-645.

Impact of CTL escape on HIV fitness

  1. Zhang WH, Hockley DJ, Nermut MV, Jones IM. Functional consequences of mutations in HIV-1 Gag p55 selected by CTL pressure. Virology. 1994; 203(1):101-5.
  2. Nietfield W, Bauer M, Fevrier M, et al. Sequence constraints and recognition by CTL of an HLA-B27-restricted HIV-1 gag epitope. J Immunol. 1995; 154(5):2189-97.
  3. Schneidewind A, Brockman MA, Yang R et al. Escape from the dominant HLA-B27-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response in Gag is associated with a dramatic reduction in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. J Virol 2007; 81:12382-12393.
  4. Brockman MA, Schneidewind A, Lahaie M et al. Escape and compensation from early HLA-B57-mediated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte pressure on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag alter capsid interactions with cyclophilin A. J Virol 2007; 81:12608-12618.
  5. Ariën KK, Vanham G, Arts EJ. Is HIV-1 evolving to a less virulent form in humans? Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007; 5(2):141-51. Review
  6. Troyer RM, McNevin J, Liu Y et al. Variable fitness impact of HIV-1 escape mutations to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. PLoS Pathog. 2009; 5(4):e1000365.
  7. Chopera DR, Woodman Z, Mlisana K et al; CAPRISA 002 Study Team. Transmission of HIV-1 CTL escape variants provides HLA-mismatched recipients with a survival advantage. PLoS Pathog. 2008; 4(3):e1000033.
  8. Goepfert PA, Lumm W, Farmer P et al. Transmission of HIV-1 Gag immune escape mutations is associated with reduced viral load in linked recipients. J Exp Med. 2008; 205(5):1009-17.

T-cell receptors and CTL function

  1. Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Trocha AK et al. Longitudinal analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) gene usage by human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones reveals a limited TCR repertoire. J Exp Med. 1994; 179(4):1261-71.
  2. Meyer-Olson D, Brady KW, Bartman MT et al. Fluctuations of functionally distinct CD8+ T-cell clonotypes demonstrate flexibility of the HIV-specific TCR repertoire. Blood. 2006; 107(6):2373-83.
  3. Yu XG, Lichterfeld M, Chetty S et al. Mutually exclusive T-cell receptor induction and differential susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutational escape associated with a two-amino-acid difference between HLA class I subtypes. J Virol. 2007; 81(4):1619-31.
  4. Turnbull EL, Lopes AR, Jones NA et al. HIV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses strongly associated with delayed disease progression cross-recognize epitope variants efficiently. J Immunol. 2006; 176(10):6130-46.
  5. Yang OO, Church J, Kitchen CM et al. Genetic and stochastic influences on the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in identical twins. J Virol. 2005; 79(24):15368-75.
  6. Price DA, Asher TE, Wilson NA et al. Public clonotype usage identifies protective Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses in SIV infection. J Exp Med. 2009; 206(4):923-36.
  7. Meyer-Olson D, Simons BC, Conrad JA et al. Clonal expansion and TCR-independent differentiation shape the HIV-specific CD8+ effector-memory T-cell repertoire in vivo. Blood. 2010; 116(3):396-405.
  8. Geldmacher C, Metzler IS, Tovanabutra S et al. Minor viral and host genetic polymorphisms can dramatically impact the biologic outcome of an epitope-specific CD8 T-cell response. Blood. 2009; 114(8):1553-62.
  9. Klenerman P, Rowland-Jones S, McAdam S et al. Cytotoxic T-cell activity antagonized by naturally occurring HIV-1 Gag variants. Nature. 1994; 369(6479):403-7.

T-cell cloning

  1. Marcela V. Maus, Anna K. Thomas, Debra G.B. Leonard. Ex vivo expansion of polyclonal and antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by artificial APCs expressing ligands for the T-cell receptor, CD28 and 4-1BB Nature 2002.

New directions in vaccines and theraputics

  1. Varela-Rohena A, Molloy PE, Dunn SM et al. Control of HIV-1 immune escape by CD8 T cells expressing enhanced T-cell receptor. Nat Med. 2008; 14(12):1390-5.
  2. Schaubert KL, Price DA, Salkowitz JR et al. Generation of robust CD8(+) T-cell responses against subdominant epitopes in conserved regions of HIV-1 by repertoire mining with mimotopes. Eur J Immunol. 2010; 40(7):1950-1962.
  3. Honda M, Wang R, Kong WP et al. Different vaccine vectors delivering the same antigen elicit CD8+ T cell responses with distinct clonotype and epitope specificity. J Immunol. 2009; 183(4):2425-34.
  4. Cheong C, Choi JH, Vitale L et al. Improved cellular and humoral immune responses in vivo following targeting of HIV Gag to dendritic cells within human anti-human DEC205 monoclonal antibody. Blood. 2010 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print]
  5. Barouch DH, O'Brien KL, Simmons NL et al. Mosaic HIV-1 vaccines expand the breadth and depth of cellular immune responses in rhesus monkeys. Nat Med. 2010; 16(3):319-23.